Background: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is gaining popularity in the United States. However, few studies have examined outcomes of sleeve gastrectomy compared with those of the "gold standard" bariatric operation: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
Study design: Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, clinical data were obtained for all patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or laparoscopic gastric bypass between 2010 and 2011. Main outcomes measures were risk-adjusted 30-day serious morbidity and mortality.
Results: We analyzed 24,117 patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or laparoscopic gastric bypass for the treatment of morbid obesity. Gastric bypass comprised 79.5% of cases and sleeve gastrectomy comprised 20.5%; the proportion of sleeve gastrectomy cases increased from 14.6% in 2010 to 25.8% in 2011. On univariate analysis, sleeve gastrectomy had a shorter mean operative time (101 vs 133 minutes, p < 0.01), a lower rate of blood loss requiring transfusion (0.6% vs 1.5%, p < 0.01), a lower rate of deep wound infections (0.06% vs 0.20%, p = 0.05), lower serious morbidity rate (3.8% vs 5.8%, p < 0.01), and 30-day reoperation rate (1.6% vs 2.5%, p < 0.01), but a higher rate of deep venous thrombosis (0.47% vs 0.21%, p < 0.01). Compared with sleeve gastrectomy, gastric bypass patients had higher risk-adjusted 30-day serious morbidity (odds ratio [OR] 1.32; 95% CI1.11 to 1.56, p < 0.01). Patients who were older, had higher BMI, smoked, or had hypertension were at significantly greater risk of serious morbidity. The 30-day mortality was similar between groups (0.10% for sleeve vs 0.15% for bypass).
Conclusions: Use of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is increasing on a national level. Compared with laparoscopic gastric bypass, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is associated with lower 30-day risk-adjusted serious morbidity and equivalent 30-day mortality.
Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.