Grazoprevir-Elbasvir Combination Therapy for Treatment-Naive Cirrhotic and Noncirrhotic Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1, 4, or 6 Infection: A Randomized Trial

Ann Intern Med. 2015 Jul 7;163(1):1-13. doi: 10.7326/M15-0785.

Abstract

Background: Novel interferon- and ribavirin-free regimens are needed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of grazoprevir (NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and elbasvir (NS5A inhibitor) in treatment-naive patients.

Design: Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02105467).

Setting: 60 centers in the United States, Europe, Australia, Scandinavia, and Asia.

Patients: Cirrhotic and noncirrhotic treatment-naive adults with genotype 1, 4, or 6 infection.

Intervention: Oral, once-daily, fixed-dose grazoprevir 100 mg/elbasvir 50 mg for 12 weeks, stratified by fibrosis and genotype. Patients were randomly assigned 3:1 to immediate or deferred therapy.

Measurements: Proportion of patients in the immediate-treatment group achieving unquantifiable HCV RNA 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12); adverse events in both groups.

Results: Among 421 participants, 194 (46%) were women, 157 (37%) were nonwhite, 382 (91%) had genotype 1 infection, and 92 (22%) had cirrhosis. Of 316 patients receiving immediate treatment, 299 of 316 (95% [95% CI, 92% to 97%]) achieved SVR12, including 144 of 157 (92% [CI, 86% to 96%]) with genotype 1a, 129 of 131 (99% [CI, 95% to 100%]) with genotype 1b, 18 of 18 (100% [CI, 82% to 100%]) with genotype 4, 8 of 10 (80% [CI, 44% to 98%]) with genotype 6, 68 of 70 (97% [CI, 90% to 100%]) with cirrhosis, and 231 of 246 (94% [CI, 90% to 97%]) without cirrhosis. Virologic failure occurred in 13 patients (4%), including 1 case of breakthrough infection and 12 relapses, and was associated with baseline NS5A polymorphisms and emergent NS3 or NS5A variants or both. Serious adverse events occurred in 9 (2.8%) and 3 (2.9%) patients in the active and placebo groups, respectively (difference <0.05 percentage point [CI, -5.4 to 3.1 percentage points]); none were considered drug related. The most common adverse events in the active group were headache (17%), fatigue (16%), and nausea (9%).

Limitation: The study lacked an active-comparator control group and included relatively few genotype 4 and 6 infections.

Conclusion: Grazoprevir-elbasvir achieved high SVR12 rates in treatment-naive cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients with genotype 1, 4, or 6 infection. This once-daily, all-oral, fixed-combination regimen represents a potent new therapeutic option for chronic HCV infection.

Primary funding source: Merck & Co.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antiviral Agents / adverse effects
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Benzofurans / adverse effects
  • Benzofurans / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Fatigue / chemically induced
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Headache / chemically induced
  • Hepacivirus / genetics
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / drug therapy*
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / virology
  • Humans
  • Imidazoles / adverse effects
  • Imidazoles / therapeutic use*
  • Liver Cirrhosis / complications
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nausea / chemically induced
  • Quinoxalines / adverse effects
  • Quinoxalines / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Viral Load
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • 2-(pyrrolidin-2-yl)-5-(2-(4-(5-(pyrrolidin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)benzofuran-5-yl)-1H-imidazole
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Benzofurans
  • Imidazoles
  • Quinoxalines
  • MK-5172

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02105467