Aims: This systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was conducted to summarize the evidence on the association between calcium intake and mortality.
Methods and results: PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) (Web of Science), SCOPUS, SciRUS, Google Scholar, and Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE) were searched to identify related articles published through May 2014. We found 22 articles that assessed the association between total, dietary, and supplementary intake with mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. Findings from this meta-analysis revealed no significant association between total and dietary calcium intake and mortality from all-causes, CVD, and cancer. Subgroup analysis by the duration of follow-up revealed a significant positive association between total calcium intake and CVD mortality for cohort studies with a mean follow-up duration of >10 years (relative risk (RR): 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.68). A significant inverse association was seen between dietary calcium intake and all-cause (RR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.70-1.00) and CVD mortality (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78-0.99) for studies with a mean follow-up duration of ≤10 years. Although supplemental calcium intake was not associated with CVD (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.82-1.10) and cancer mortality (RR: 1.22; 95% CI: 0.81-1.84), it was inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.88-0.94).
Conclusions: We found a significant relationship between the total calcium intake and an increased risk of CVD mortality for studies with a long follow-up time and a significant protective association between dietary calcium intake and all-cause and CVD mortality for studies with a mean follow-up of ≤10 years. Supplemental calcium intake was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality.
Keywords: Calcium; Diet; Meta-analysis; Mortality.
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