Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a common cause for drug withdrawal from the market and although infrequent, DILI can result in serious clinical outcomes including acute liver failure and the need for liver transplantation. Eliminating the iatrogenic "harm" caused by a therapeutic intent is a priority in patient care. However, identifying culprit drugs and individuals at risk for DILI remains challenging. Apart from genetic factors predisposing individuals at risk, the role of the drugs' physicochemical and toxicological properties and their interactions with host and environmental factors need to be considered. The influence of these factors on mechanisms involved in DILI is multi-layered. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on 1) drug properties associated with hepatotoxicity, 2) host factors considered to modify an individuals' risk for DILI and clinical phenotypes, and 3) drug-host interactions. We aim at clarifying knowledge gaps needed to be filled in as to improve risk stratification in patient care. We therefore broadly discuss relevant areas of future research. Emerging insight will stimulate new investigational approaches to facilitate the discovery of clinical DILI risk modifiers in the context of disease complexity and associated interactions with drug properties, and hence will be able to move towards safety personalized medicine.
Keywords: Clinical toxicology; Drug clearance; Drug metabolism; Drug physicochemical properties; Drug-host Interaction; Drug-induced liver injury; Host factors; Pharmacogenetics.
Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.