To guide behavior and learn from its consequences, the brain must represent time over many scales. Yet, the neural signals used to encode time in the seconds-to-minute range are not known. The striatum is a major input area of the basal ganglia associated with learning and motor function. Previous studies have also shown that the striatum is necessary for normal timing behavior. To address how striatal signals might be involved in timing, we recorded from striatal neurons in rats performing an interval timing task. We found that neurons fired at delays spanning tens of seconds and that this pattern of responding reflected the interaction between time and the animals' ongoing sensorimotor state. Surprisingly, cells rescaled responses in time when intervals changed, indicating that striatal populations encoded relative time. Moreover, time estimates decoded from activity predicted timing behavior as animals adjusted to new intervals, and disrupting striatal function led to a decrease in timing performance. These results suggest that striatal activity forms a scalable population code for time, providing timing signals that animals use to guide their actions.
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