We present correlations of extent of temporal lobectomy for intractable epilepsy with postoperative memory changes (20 cases) and abnormalities of visual field and neurologic examination (45 cases). Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the coronal plane was used to quantify anteroposterior extent of resection of various quadrants of the temporal lobe, using a 20-compartment model of that structure. The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) was administered preoperatively and postoperatively. Postoperative decrease in percentage of retention of verbal material correlated with extent of medial resection of left temporal lobe, whereas decrease in percentage of retention of visual material correlated with extent of medial resection of right temporal lobe. These correlations approached but did not reach statistical significance. Extent of resection correlated significantly with the presence of visual field defect on perimetry testing but not with severity, denseness, or congruity of the defect. There was no correlation between postoperative dysphasia and extent of resection in any quadrant. Assessment of extent of resection after temporal lobectomy allows a rational interpretation of postoperative neurologic deficits in light of functional anatomy of the temporal lobe.