Xyloketal B suppresses glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro through inhibiting TRPM7-regulated PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways

Mar Drugs. 2015 Apr 22;13(4):2505-25. doi: 10.3390/md13042505.


Glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive type of brain tumors, has devastatingly proliferative and invasive characteristics. The need for finding a novel and specific drug target is urgent as the current approaches have limited therapeutic effects in treating glioblastoma. Xyloketal B is a marine compound obtained from mangrove fungus Xylaria sp. (No. 2508) from the South China Sea, and has displayed antioxidant activity and protective effects on endothelial and neuronal oxidative injuries. In this study, we used a glioblastoma U251 cell line to (1) explore the effects of xyloketal B on cell viability, proliferation, and migration; and (2) investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways. MTT assay, colony formation, wound healing, western blot, and patch clamp techniques were employed. We found that xyloketal B reduced cell viability, proliferation, and migration of U251 cells. In addition, xyloketal B decreased p-Akt and p-ERK1/2 protein expressions. Furthermore, xyloketal B blocked TRPM7 currents in HEK-293 cells overexpressing TRPM7. These effects were confirmed by using a TRPM7 inhibitor, carvacrol, in a parallel experiment. Our findings indicate that TRPM7-regulated PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling is involved in anti-proliferation and migration effects of xyloketal B on U251 cells, providing in vitro evidence for the marine compound xyloketal B to be a potential drug for treating glioblastoma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Aquatic Organisms / chemistry
  • Aquatic Organisms / growth & development
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Movement / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • China
  • Down-Regulation / drug effects*
  • Glioblastoma / drug therapy*
  • Glioblastoma / metabolism
  • Glioblastoma / pathology
  • Humans
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System / drug effects
  • Membrane Potentials / drug effects
  • Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • Neurons / drug effects
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase / metabolism
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • Pyrans / pharmacology*
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects*
  • TRPM Cation Channels / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • TRPM Cation Channels / metabolism
  • Wetlands
  • Xylariales / chemistry
  • Xylariales / growth & development


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Pyrans
  • TRPM Cation Channels
  • xyloketal B
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase
  • AKT1 protein, human
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • TRPM7 protein, human