Antibodies with protective activity are critical for vaccine efficacy. Affinity maturation increases antibody activity through multiple rounds of somatic hypermutation and selection in the germinal center. Identification of HIV-1 specific and influenza-specific antibody developmental pathways, as well as characterization of B cell and virus co-evolution in patients, has informed our understanding of antibody development. In order to counteract HIV-1 and influenza viral diversity, broadly neutralizing antibodies precisely target specific sites of vulnerability and require high levels of affinity maturation. We present immunization strategies that attempt to recapitulate these natural processes and guide the affinity maturation process.
Published by Elsevier B.V.