Aim: To investigate the association between iron deficiency anaemia and mortality risk and assess the changes in anaemia and iron status after primary management by a nephrologist.
Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we stratified 951 non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) G2-G5 patients newly visiting 16 nephrology centres into four groups according to the presence of anaemia with or without iron deficiency. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV)-related mortality, and a change in anaemia and iron status after specialized primary care were the endpoints evaluated.
Results: During a median follow-up time of 19 months, the number of all-cause deaths and CV-related deaths were 56 and 26, respectively. Compared with the control group, the groups with isolated anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia had significantly higher all-cause mortalities (isolated anaemia: hazard ratio (HR), 3.37; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.76-6.44; iron deficiency anaemia: HR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.21-8.01) and CV-related mortalities (isolated anaemia: HR, 3.64; 95% CI, 1.36-9.73; iron deficiency anaemia: HR, 3.86; 95% CI, 1.11-13.41). In the isolated anaemia group, erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA) prescriptions significantly increased to approximately 70%. However, in patients with both anaemia and iron deficiency, iron prescriptions only increased to 48.1%.
Conclusions: Iron deficiency anaemia and isolated anaemia were associated with all-cause and CV-related mortality. The absence of relative increase in iron prescriptions suggests that iron deficiency should be accurately assessed and iron supplementation should be appropriately used to manage anaemia in non-dialysis patients with CKD.
Keywords: anaemia; cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease; iron deficiency; mortality.
© 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.