Background and objectives: Oral enzalutamide (160 mg once daily) is approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This article describes the pharmacokinetics of enzalutamide and its active metabolite N-desmethyl enzalutamide.
Methods: Results are reported from five clinical studies.
Results: In a dose-escalation study (n = 140), enzalutamide half-life was 5.8 days, steady state was achieved by day 28, accumulation was 8.3-fold, exposure was approximately dose proportional from 30-360 mg/day, and intersubject variability was ≤30 %. In a mass balance study (n = 6), enzalutamide was primarily eliminated by hepatic metabolism. Renal excretion was an insignificant elimination pathway for enzalutamide and N-desmethyl enzalutamide. In a food-effect study (n = 60), food did not have a meaningful effect on area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of enzalutamide or N-desmethyl enzalutamide, and in an hepatic impairment study, AUC of the sum of enzalutamide plus N-desmethyl enzalutamide was similar in men with mild (n = 6) or moderate (n = 8) impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B) versus men with normal hepatic function (n = 14). In a phase III trial, an exposure-response analysis of steady-state predose (trough) concentrations (C trough) versus overall survival (n = 1103) showed that active treatment C trough quartiles for 160 mg/day were uniformly beneficial relative to placebo, and no threshold of C trough was associated with a statistically significant better response.
Conclusions: Enzalutamide has predictable pharmacokinetics, with low intersubject variability. Similar efficacy was observed in patients across the concentration/exposure range associated with a fixed oral dose of enzalutamide 160 mg/day.