Feasibility of a combined camp approach for vector control together with active case detection of visceral leishmaniasis, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, leprosy and malaria in Bangladesh, India and Nepal: an exploratory study

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Jun;109(6):408-15. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/trv031. Epub 2015 Apr 26.


Background: We assessed the feasibility and results of active case detection (ACD) of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and other febrile diseases as well as of bednet impregnation for vector control.

Methods: Fever camps were organized and analyzed in twelve VL endemic villages in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. VL, PKDL, tuberculosis, malaria and leprosy were screened among the febrile patients attending the camps, and existing bednets were impregnated with a slow release insecticide.

Results: Among the camp attendees one new VL case and two PKDL cases were detected in Bangladesh and one VL case in Nepal. Among suspected tuberculosis cases two were positive in India but none in the other countries. In India, two leprosy cases were found. No malaria cases were detected. Bednet impregnation coverage during fever camps was more than 80% in the three countries. Bednet impregnation led to a reduction of sandfly densities after 2 weeks by 86% and 32%, and after 4 weeks by 95% and 12% in India and Nepal respectively. The additional costs for the control programmes seem to be reasonable.

Conclusion: It is feasible to combine ACD camps for VL and PKDL along with other febrile diseases, and vector control with bednet impregnation.

Keywords: Active case detection; Bednet impregnation; Febrile cases; Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; Sandfly control; Visceral leishmaniasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bangladesh / epidemiology
  • Disease Eradication / organization & administration*
  • Endemic Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Fever / epidemiology
  • Fever / prevention & control*
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Insect Control
  • Insecticide-Treated Bednets / statistics & numerical data*
  • Insecticides
  • Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous / epidemiology
  • Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous / prevention & control*
  • Leishmaniasis, Visceral / epidemiology
  • Leishmaniasis, Visceral / prevention & control*
  • Leprosy / epidemiology
  • Leprosy / prevention & control*
  • Malaria / epidemiology
  • Malaria / prevention & control*
  • Nepal / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Program Development
  • Psychodidae
  • Tuberculosis / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis / prevention & control*


  • Insecticides