Nonpharmacological interventions for pain management in paramedicine and the emergency setting: a review of the literature

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:873039. doi: 10.1155/2015/873039. Epub 2015 Mar 31.


Paramedicine and the emergency medical services have been moving in the direction of advancing pharmaceutical intervention for the management of pain in both acute and chronic situations. This coincides with other areas of advanced life support and patient management strategies that have been well researched and continue to benefit from the increasing evidence. Even though paramedic practice is firmly focused on pharmacological interventions to alleviate pain, there is emerging evidence proposing a range of nonpharmacological options that can have an important role in pain management. This review highlights literature that suggests that paramedicine and emergency medical services should be considering the application of complementary and alternative therapies which can enhance current practice and reduce the use of pharmacological interventions.

Publication types

  • Review