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. 2015 Apr 24;12(5):4602-16.
doi: 10.3390/ijerph120504602.

Lead Isotope Characterization of Petroleum Fuels in Taipei, Taiwan

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Lead Isotope Characterization of Petroleum Fuels in Taipei, Taiwan

Pei-Hsuan Yao et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Leaded gasoline in Taiwan was gradually phased out from 1983 to 2000. However, it is unclear whether unleaded gasoline still contributes to atmospheric lead (Pb) exposure in urban areas. In this study, Pb isotopic compositions of unleaded gasolines, with octane numbers of 92, 95, 98, and diesel from two local suppliers in Taipei were determined by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a two-sigma uncertainty of ± 0.02 %. Lead isotopic ratios of vehicle exhaust (²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁷Pb: 2.427, ²⁰⁶Pb/²⁰⁷Pb: 1.148, as estimated from petroleum fuels) overlap with the reported aerosol data. This agreement indicates that local unleaded petroleum fuels, containing 10-45 ng·Pb·g⁻¹, are merely one contributor among various sources to urban aerosol Pb. Additionally, the distinction between the products of the two companies is statistically significant in their individual ²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁶Pb ratios (p-value < 0.001, t test). Lead isotopic characterization appears to be applicable as a "fingerprinting" tool for tracing the sources of Pb pollution.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
History of the use of petroleum fuels in Taiwan (data from [12]).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Lead isotopic ratios of Taiwan’s fuel products collected from Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (CPC) and Formosa Plastics Corporation (FPC). Besides, #92, #95 and #98 represent unleaded gasoline with octane number 92, 95 and 98, respectively.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Scatter plot of 208Pb/207Pb versus 206Pb/207Pb for fuel products, estimated local vehicle emissions (the yellow circle), and particulate matter accumulated on wall tile surface from the main tunnels (PMT samples) [17] (the dark gray square) and seasonal aerosols collected in Taipei (drawn as the dotted ellipse; refer to Hsu et al. [17] for details data). The gray ellipse area represents Chinese aerosols [10,38,44,45]. Lead isotopic feature of Australian Pb ore [44], as the major import into Taiwan for industry, is also shown.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Scatter plot of 208Pb/207Pb versus 206Pb/207Pb for fuel products, estimated Taiwanese vehicle emissions (the yellow circle), together with the seasonal aerosols collected in Pengjia Islet by Lien [20], drawn as blank squares. The gray ellipse area represents Chinese aerosols [10,38,44,45]. In addition, aerosol records in Oki Islands, Japan [8] recalculated and summarized are also shown as a pink ellipse.

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