Proton MRS and MRSI of the brain without water suppression

Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc. 2015 Apr;86-87:65-79. doi: 10.1016/j.pnmrs.2014.12.001. Epub 2014 Dec 24.


Water suppression (WS) techniques have played a vital role in the commencement and development of in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, including spectroscopic imaging - MRSI). WS not only made in vivo proton MRS functionally available but also made its applications conveniently accessible, and it has become an indispensable tool in most of the routine applications of in vivo proton MR spectroscopy. On the other hand, WS brought forth some challenges. Therefore, various techniques of proton MRS without WS have been developed since the pioneering work in the late 1990s. After more than one and a half decades of advances in both hardware and software, non-water-suppressed proton MRS is coming to the stage of maturity and seeing increasing application in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we will review progress in the technical development and applications of proton MRS without WS.

Keywords: Brain; MRSI; Proton MRS; Sideband artifacts; Without water suppression.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Artifacts
  • Brain Chemistry / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods*
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Protons


  • Protons