North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS 2): The Prodromal Symptoms

J Nerv Ment Dis. 2015 May;203(5):328-35. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000290.


In studies describing the long-term follow-up up of youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis, little attention has been given to details of specific prodromal symptoms. In this paper, we describe the prodromal symptoms of 764 CHR participants recruited in the multi-site North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). Symptoms were rated on the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) at baseline and 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups. Clinical outcome at the 2-year assessment was categorized as psychotic, prodromal progression, symptomatic or in remission. Most of the CHR sample (92%) met criteria for the attenuated positive symptoms syndrome (APSS). Significant improvements in SOPS symptoms were observed over time. Unusual thought content, disorganized communication, and overall ratings on disorganized symptoms differentiated those who transitioned to psychosis from the other clinical outcome groups. Suspiciousness and total positive symptoms differentiated those in remission from the other clinical outcome groups.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Algorithms
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • Disease Progression
  • Early Diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • North America
  • Prodromal Symptoms*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / statistics & numerical data
  • Psychometrics
  • Psychotic Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Psychotic Disorders / genetics
  • Psychotic Disorders / psychology*
  • Remission, Spontaneous
  • Risk Assessment
  • Schizophrenia / diagnosis*
  • Schizophrenia / genetics
  • Schizophrenic Psychology*
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder / diagnosis*
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder / genetics
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder / psychology*
  • Young Adult