Frailty predictors and outcomes among older patients with cardiovascular disease: Data from Fragicor

Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2015 Jul-Aug;61(1):1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2015.03.001. Epub 2015 Mar 14.


The aim of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for frailty among older outpatient adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to assess the predictive value of frailty in regard to mortality, disability and hospitalization at 1-year follow-up. A prospective cohort study was carried out with subjects over 65 years of age from an outpatient Cardiology clinic, with at least one CVD. At baseline, we classified frailty as proposed by Fried, i.e.; unintentional weight loss (10lbs in the past year), self-reported exhaustion, weakness (measured by grip strength), slow walking speed, and low physical activity. A frail person was defined by the presence of three or more criteria, prefrail by one or two and robust by the absence of them. Disability, previous hospitalizations, falls, morphometric and socio-demographic variables were collected; as well as the presence of CVD and hemodynamic parameters (HP): systolic (SPB) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR) and ejection fraction (EF). At 1-year follow-up, the outcomes assessed were: disability, number of hospitalizations and death. 172 subjects were included in this study with a mean age of 77 years old. The prevalence of frail was 39.8%, prefrail 51.5% and robust was 8.7%. Among the CVD and HP evaluated, myocardial infarction (MI), presence of three or more CVDs, lower SPB and DBP were significant and independent factors associated with the frailty phenotype. At 1-year follow up, frailty was an independent predictor for disability (Odds Ratio (OR): 3.94 (1.59-9.75); p=0.003) and it increased death probability by three times if compared to the robust group. In conclusion, older outpatients with CVD have a higher probability to be frail than older adults who do not have a CVD. Low SPB and DBP must always be taken into consideration due to their high association with frailty. It is also important to diagnose frailty in this population due to the high association with mortality and disability.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Disability; Fragility; Mortality.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Cardiac Rehabilitation
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Disabled Persons*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Frail Elderly / statistics & numerical data*
  • Geriatric Assessment / methods*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Rate / trends