Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and prevention efforts to reduce the spread of C. difficile, CDI remains a significant challenge to healthcare systems worldwide. Further advances in prevention of CDI may need to focus on those who continue to be exposed to the organism and who are susceptible. Interventions directed toward this susceptible population, particularly hospitalized patients who receive antibiotics, may be effective. There is moderate evidence on the effectiveness of probiotics to prevent primary CDI, but there are few data to support use in secondary prevention of recurrent CDI. This review discusses the literature available on the use of probiotics to prevent primary and secondary CDI.
Keywords: Clostridium difficile; meta-analysis; probiotics.
Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.