A Decade of Experience in Primary Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection at a Community Hospital Using the Probiotic Combination Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+)

Clin Infect Dis. 2015 May 15:60 Suppl 2:S144-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ178.


In August 2003, the 284-bed community hospital Pierre-Le Gardeur (PLGH) in Quebec experienced a major outbreak associated with the Clostridium difficile NAP1/027/BI strain. Augmented standard preventive measures (SPMs) were not able to control this outbreak. It was decided in February 2004 to give to every adult inpatient on antibiotics, without any exclusion, a probiotic (Bio-K+: Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2) within 12 hours of the antibiotic prescription. Augmented SPMs were continued. The use of the probiotic in addition to SPMs was associated with a marked reduction of C. difficile infection (CDI). During the 10 years of observation, 44 835 inpatients received Bio-K+, and the CDI rate at PLGH declined from 18.0 cases per 10,000 patient-days and remained at low mean levels of 2.3 cases per 10,000 patient-days. Additionally, 10-year data collected by the Ministry of Health in Quebec comparing the CDI rate between Quebec hospitals showed that CDI rates at PLGH were consistently and continuously lower compared with those at similar hospitals. Blood cultures were monitored at PLGH for Lactobacillus bacteremia through the 10 years' experience, and no Lactobacillus bacteremias were detected. Despite the limitation of an observational study, we concluded that the probiotic Bio-K+ was safe and effective in decreasing our primary CDI rate.

Keywords: Bio-K+; C. difficile infection; diarrhea; primary prevention; probiotic.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bacteremia / prevention & control
  • Bacteremia / therapy
  • Clostridioides difficile / pathogenicity
  • Clostridium Infections / epidemiology
  • Clostridium Infections / microbiology
  • Clostridium Infections / prevention & control*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diarrhea / prevention & control
  • Diarrhea / therapy
  • Disease Outbreaks / prevention & control
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hospitals, Community
  • Humans
  • Lacticaseibacillus casei* / isolation & purification
  • Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus* / isolation & purification
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus* / isolation & purification
  • Primary Prevention
  • Probiotics / therapeutic use*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quebec / epidemiology
  • Time Factors


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents