This article aims to compare the trends for risk and protective factors for NCD in the population with and without health insurance. Analysis of temporal trends of the Vigitel phone survey, collected annually in adult population. Were used analyzed the temporal series of variables referent to risk and protective factors for NCD, from 2008 to 2013. Variables were compared according to the possession or not of health insurance using simple linear regression model. There was a reduction in the prevalence of smoking in the population with and without health insurance, in 0.72% and 0,69% per year respectively. The consumption of fruits and vegetables grew 0,8% and 0.72% per year respectively among the population with and without health insurance. Physical activity in leisure time increased 1.17% and 1.01% per year among population with and without health insurance. Excess weight increased in 1.03% and obesity in 0.74% p.y in the population with health insurance and 1.53% and 0.95% p.y without health insurance. Mammography increased 2.4% in the population without health insurance. Vigitel monitoring showed improvement in the indicators in the population with and without health insurance.