[Reference values of calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride for the Venezuelan population]

Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2013 Dec;63(4):362-82.
[Article in Spanish]


The following micronutrients were considered together for their role in bone health: calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride. Calcium: not enough is known to change current recommendations. In adolescents and adults, limited data suggest that consuming the recommended level is associated with normal bone mass. In older adults, the limited data reported low consumption and a high rate of fractures but there is no information on whether the current values are adequate. Vitamin D: the limited data reported high deficiency in older adults, which was related to osteoporosis. Given the recent increase in North American recommendation for their contribution to bone health, we proposed to increase the recommendation to 400-600 IU/d for Venezuela. Phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride: the lack of local data does not support changing the latest recommendations. Therefore, it highlights the lack of local studies to assess current recommendations. Studies are needed to estimate the intake of these micronutrients in the population and evaluate their interaction and their relation to bone and overall health. Information of the adequacy of these nutrients in human milk for infants is needed. Alto, it is necessary to implement an effective nutrition surveillance system and implement interventions that maximize bone health from an early stage, including the design and implementation of a dairy policy that leads to an increase in production and consumption by the population.

Publication types

  • English Abstract
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Fluorides / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Magnesium / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Policy
  • Phosphorus / administration & dosage*
  • Pregnancy
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances*
  • Reference Values
  • Venezuela
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage*
  • Young Adult


  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D
  • Phosphorus
  • Magnesium
  • Fluorides