Recent advances of microRNA-based molecular diagnostics to reduce false-positive lung cancer imaging

Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2015 Jun;15(6):801-13. doi: 10.1586/14737159.2015.1041377. Epub 2015 Apr 30.


Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Advances in early detection crucial to enable timely curative surgery have been made in recent years. Cost-benefit profiles of lung cancer screening in smokers by low-dose computed tomography are still under evaluation. In particular, the high false-positive rates of low-dose computed tomography, together with the issue of overdiagnosis and the overall costs of screening, prompted a focus on the development of noninvasive complementary biomarkers to implement lung cancer screening. MicroRNA are a new class of blood-based biomarkers useful for early lung cancer detection and prognosis definition. Here, we discuss the seminal publications that reported circulating microRNA signatures with the greatest potential to impact clinical activity and patient care.

Keywords: LDCT; biomarkers; circulating microRNA; lung cancer; screening.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Early Detection of Cancer / methods
  • Early Detection of Cancer / standards
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Lung Neoplasms / genetics*
  • MicroRNAs / blood
  • MicroRNAs / genetics*
  • Molecular Diagnostic Techniques / methods*
  • Molecular Diagnostic Techniques / standards
  • Molecular Imaging / methods*
  • Molecular Imaging / standards
  • Prognosis
  • Tomography, Spiral Computed


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • MicroRNAs