Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Advances in early detection crucial to enable timely curative surgery have been made in recent years. Cost-benefit profiles of lung cancer screening in smokers by low-dose computed tomography are still under evaluation. In particular, the high false-positive rates of low-dose computed tomography, together with the issue of overdiagnosis and the overall costs of screening, prompted a focus on the development of noninvasive complementary biomarkers to implement lung cancer screening. MicroRNA are a new class of blood-based biomarkers useful for early lung cancer detection and prognosis definition. Here, we discuss the seminal publications that reported circulating microRNA signatures with the greatest potential to impact clinical activity and patient care.
Keywords: LDCT; biomarkers; circulating microRNA; lung cancer; screening.