Horizontal cells generating photopic luminosity and biphasic/chromaticity-type S-potentials were identified and intracellularly labelled with horseradish peroxidase in the retina of the roach. The synaptic connectivity patterns of the horizontal cell dendrites within pedicles of different spectral types of cone were then quantitatively studied by electron microscopy. Luminosity-type responses were generated by H1-like horizontal cells contacting similar numbers of red- and green-sensitive cones and very few blue-sensitive cones. Most dendritic contacts were lateral to synaptic ribbons. Central contacts with ribbons were made almost exclusively within red-sensitive cone pedicles. Biphasic/chromaticity-type S-potentials were generated by H2-like horizontal cells. The dendrites of the latter contacted green- and blue-sensitive cones, both at central and lateral sites at synaptic ribbons. An attempt was made to correlate cone ribbon connectivity patterns and spectral characteristics of the horizontal cells according to several hypotheses, some proposed in earlier studies.