Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model

Am J Clin Hypn. 2015 Jan;57(3):314-29. doi: 10.1080/00029157.2014.976783.


This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

Keywords: attention; cognitive; core and process variables in hypnosis; expectancy; hypnosis; hypnotic suggestibility; induction; response set theory; socio-cognitive models; suggestion.

MeSH terms

  • Attention
  • Cognition*
  • Consciousness
  • Humans
  • Hypnosis*
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Suggestion*