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Review
, 56 (12), 869-80

[Reprogramming of Somatic Cells. Problems and Solutions]

[Article in Russian]
  • PMID: 25929128
Review

[Reprogramming of Somatic Cells. Problems and Solutions]

[Article in Russian]
T A Schneider et al. Tsitologiia.

Abstract

An adult mammal is composed of more than 200 different types of specialized somatic cells whose differentiated state remains stable over the life of the organism. For a long time it was believed that the differentiation process is irreversible, and the transition between the two types of specialized cells is impossible. The possibility of direct conversion of one differentiated cell type to another was first shown in the 80s of the last century in experiments on the conversion of fibroblasts into myoblasts by ectopic expression of the transcription factor MyoD. Surprisingly, this technology has remained unclaimed in cell biology for a long time. Interest in it revived after 200 thanks to the research of Novel Prize winner Shinya Yamanaka who has shown that a small set of transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) is capable of restoring pluripotency in somatic cells which they lost in the process of differentiation. In 2010, using a similar strategy and the tissue-specific transcription factors Vierbuchen and coauthors showed the possibility of direct conversion of fibroblasts into neurons, i. e. the possibility of transdifferentiation of one type of somatic cells in the other. The works of these authoras were a breakthrough in the field of cell biology and gave a powerful impulse to the development of cell technologies for the needs of regenerative medicine. The present review discusses the main historical discoveries that preceded this work, evaluates the status of the problem and the progress in the development of methods for reprogramming at the moment, describes the main approaches to solving the problems of reprogramming of somatic cells into neuronal, and briefly discusses the prospect of application of reprogramming and transdifferentiation of cells for such important application areas as regenerative medicine, cell replacement therapy and drug screening.

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