Akt isoforms in vascular disease

Vascul Pharmacol. 2015 Aug;71:57-64. doi: 10.1016/j.vph.2015.03.003. Epub 2015 Apr 28.


The mammalian serine/threonine Akt kinases comprise three closely related isoforms: Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3. Akt activation has been implicated in both normal and disease processes, including in development and metabolism, as well as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Although Akt signalling has been identified as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, its role in cardiovascular disease is less clear. Importantly, accumulating evidence suggests that the three Akt isoforms exhibit distinct tissue expression profiles, localise to different subcellular compartments, and have unique modes of activation. Consistent with in vitro findings, genetic studies in mice show distinct effects of individual Akt isoforms on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. This review summarises recent studies of individual Akt isoforms in atherosclerosis, vascular remodelling and aneurysm formation, to provide a comprehensive overview of Akt function in vascular disease.

Keywords: Akt; Aneurysm; Atherosclerosis; Vascular diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Movement / physiology
  • Cell Proliferation / physiology
  • Humans
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Vascular Diseases / metabolism*
  • Vascular Diseases / pathology


  • Protein Isoforms
  • AKT2 protein, human
  • AKT3 protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt