Background and purpose: Adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is common in children born preterm. Early sensitive predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome such as MR imaging are needed. Tract-based spatial statistics, a diffusion MR imaging analysis method, performed at term-equivalent age (40 weeks) is a promising predictor of neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born very preterm. We sought to determine the association of tract-based spatial statistics findings before term-equivalent age with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18-months corrected age.
Materials and methods: Of 180 neonates (born at 24-32-weeks' gestation) enrolled, 153 had DTI acquired early at 32 weeks' postmenstrual age and 105 had DTI acquired later at 39.6 weeks' postmenstrual age. Voxelwise statistics were calculated by performing tract-based spatial statistics on DTI that was aligned to age-appropriate templates. At 18-month corrected age, 166 neonates underwent neurodevelopmental assessment by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd ed, and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd ed.
Results: Tract-based spatial statistics analysis applied to early-acquired scans (postmenstrual age of 30-33 weeks) indicated a limited significant positive association between motor skills and axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity values in the corpus callosum, internal and external/extreme capsules, and midbrain (P < .05, corrected). In contrast, for term scans (postmenstrual age of 37-41 weeks), tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed a significant relationship between both motor and cognitive scores with fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum and corticospinal tracts (P < .05, corrected). Tract-based spatial statistics in a limited subset of neonates (n = 22) scanned at <30 weeks did not significantly predict neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Conclusions: The strength of the association between fractional anisotropy values and neurodevelopmental outcome scores increased from early-to-late-acquired scans in preterm-born neonates, consistent with brain dysmaturation in this population.
© 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.