A review of the physical and metabolic effects of cross-sex hormonal therapy in the treatment of gender dysphoria

Ann Clin Biochem. 2016 Jan;53(Pt 1):10-20. doi: 10.1177/0004563215587763. Epub 2015 May 1.


This review focuses on the effect that cross-gender sex steroid therapy has on metabolic and hormonal parameters. There is an emphasis on those changes that result in significant clinical effects such as the positive effects of the development of secondary sexual characteristics and negative effects such as haemostatic effects and thromboembolism in transwomen or dyslipidaemia in transmen. There is also a description of the current hormonal regimens used at the largest UK gender identity clinic. The overall safety of these treatments in the context of long-term outcome data is reviewed.

Keywords: Testosterone oestrogen; gender dysphoria; gender-identity disorder; hormone replacement therapy; transman; transsexual; transwoman.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Gender Dysphoria / drug therapy*
  • Gender Dysphoria / metabolism
  • Gender Dysphoria / physiopathology
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods*
  • Humans