Objective: To examine the relationship between executive dysfunction, as a multidimensional construct (ie, decision-making, impulsivity, aggression, concept formation), and suicide attempt (SA) history in a high-risk sample of veterans with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Design: Observational, 2×2 factorial design. To estimate group differences, linear regression was used to model the primary and secondary outcomes of interest as a function of history of SA, TBI, and the interaction between the 2 variables. Additionally, to determine the pattern of performance over the course of the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT), scores were modeled across the 5 IGT blocks by using a varying-coefficient model.
Setting: Veterans Health Administration.
Participants: Veterans (N=133; no SA/no TBI, n=48; no SA/yes TBI, n=51; yes SA/no TBI, n=12; yes SA/yes TBI, n=22) completed the study measures.
Interventions: Not applicable.
Main outcome measures: IGT, Immediate and Delayed Memory Test, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.
Results: All groups demonstrated learning over the course of the IGT, except for veterans with a history of both SA and TBI. No group differences were identified on other measures of executive functioning.
Conclusions: These findings highlight the potential, unique decision-making challenges faced by veterans with a history of TBI and SA. Specialized interventions focused on overall distress reduction and means restriction may be required to prevent future self-directed violence.
Keywords: Brain injuries; Rehabilitation; Suicide; Veterans.
Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.