Effects of sleep duration and sleep quality on prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A 5-year follow-up study in China

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015 Jul;109(1):178-84. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2015.04.012. Epub 2015 Apr 20.


Objective: To explore the interactions of sleep quality and sleep duration on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in Chinese adults.

Research design and methods: We randomly selected 11,842 Chinese subjects from the Xuzhou community of China and obtained self-reported quality and duration of sleep by questionnaire. DM2 was assessed by fasting blood glucose. Sleep quality was categorized as good, common, or poor. Sleep duration was measured by average hours of sleep per night. We evaluated interaction, relative excess risk of interaction (RERI), the attributable proportion (AP), and the synergy index (S) using a logistic regression model.

Results: The relative risk for the development of DM2 was higher in subjects with short sleep duration (1.67 [1.34-2.16]) or poor sleep quality (1.91 [1.31-2.74]) or long sleep duration (1.45 [1.02-1.77]). DM2 occurred more frequently with poor sleep quality combined with short sleep duration (odds ratio: 6.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-11.81). RERI, AP, and S values (and their 95% CI) were 3.99 (1.41-7.76), 0.64 (0.45-0.76), and 5.15 (3.74-7.89) for the interaction between poor sleep quality and short sleep duration. In subjects with poor sleep quality combined with long sleep duration, the RERI, AP, and S values (and 95% CI) were 0.13 (-0.19 to 0.66), 0.07 (-0.35 to 0.18), and 1.19 (0.85-2.11).

Conclusions: Interactions between poor sleep quality and short sleep duration were additive. Preventive measures should focus on short sleep duration and poor sleep quality.

Keywords: Interaction; Sleep duration; Sleep quality; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • China / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk
  • Self Report
  • Sleep / physiology*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult