Antimicrobial Resistance in Hospital-Acquired Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections

Chest. 2015 May;147(5):1413-1421. doi: 10.1378/chest.14-2171.

Abstract

Aerobic gram-negative bacilli, including the family of Enterobacteriaceae and non-lactose fermenting bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species, are major causes of hospital-acquired infections. The rate of antibiotic resistance among these pathogens has accelerated dramatically in recent years and has reached pandemic scale. It is no longer uncommon to encounter gram-negative infections that are untreatable using conventional antibiotics in hospitalized patients. In this review, we provide a summary of the major classes of gram-negative bacilli and their key mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance, discuss approaches to the treatment of these difficult infections, and outline methods to slow the further spread of resistance mechanisms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cross Infection / drug therapy*
  • Cross Infection / microbiology
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial*
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / drug therapy*
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / microbiology
  • Humans