Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes in offspring of parents without diabetes regardless of ethnicity

Diabetologia. 2015 Jul;58(7):1464-73. doi: 10.1007/s00125-015-3580-1. Epub 2015 May 6.

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis: The incidence of type 1 diabetes in children is increasing in Sweden, as is the prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if maternal overweight/obesity increases the risk of type 1 diabetes in offspring of parents with and without diabetes, and of different ethnicities.

Methods: The study cohort comprised 1,263,358 children, born in Sweden between 1992 and 2004. Children were followed from birth until diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, emigration, death or end of follow-up in 2009, whichever occurred first. First trimester maternal BMI was calculated (kg/m(2)). Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CI for type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

Results: The risk of type 1 diabetes was increased in offspring of parents with any type of diabetes regardless of parental ethnicity. High first trimester maternal BMI was associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes only in offspring of parents without diabetes (IRR 1.33 [95% CI 1.20, 1.48]).

Conclusions/interpretation: Increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes in children with non-diabetic parents may partly be explained by increasing prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Databases, Factual
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology*
  • Ethnic Groups
  • Fathers
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Maternal Age
  • Mothers
  • Obesity / complications*
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Overweight / complications*
  • Overweight / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Sweden / epidemiology