The effects of HLA-identical sibling donor (ISD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) on adults with intermediate- or high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the first complete remission (CR1) are well established. Previous single-center studies have demonstrated similar survival after unmanipulated haploidentical donor (HID) vs ISD HSCT for hematologic malignancies. To test the hypothesis that haploidentical HSCT would be a valid option as postremission therapy for AML patients in CR1 lacking a matched donor, we designed a disease-specific, prospective, multicenter study. Between July 2010 and November 2013, 450 patients were assigned to undergo HID (231 patients) or ISD HSCT (219 patients) according to donor availability. Among HID and ISD recipients, the 3-year disease-free survival rate was 74% and 78% (P = .34), respectively; the overall survival rate was 79% and 82% (P = .36), respectively; cumulative incidences of relapse were 15% and 15% (P = .98); and those of the nonrelapse-mortality were 13% and 8% (P = .13), respectively. In conclusion, unmanipulated haploidentical HSCT achieves outcomes similar to those of ISD HSCT for AML patients in CR1. Such transplantation was demonstrated to be a valid alternative as postremission treatment of intermediate- or high-risk AML patients in CR1 lacking an identical donor. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org as #ChiCTR-OCH-10000940.
© 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.