The prevalence and predictors of type two diabetes mellitus in people with schizophrenia: a systematic review and comparative meta-analysis

Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015 Aug;132(2):144-57. doi: 10.1111/acps.12439. Epub 2015 May 5.


Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis investigating the prevalence of type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in people with schizophrenia compared to controls.

Method: Systematic review of electronic databases from inception till November 2014. Articles reporting the prevalence of T2DM in people with schizophrenia and healthy controls (without mental illness) were included. Two independent authors conducted searches and extracted data. A random effects relative risks (RR) meta-analysis was conducted.

Results: Twenty-five studies including 145,718 individuals with schizophrenia (22.5-54.4 years) and 4,343,407 controls were included. The prevalence of T2DM in people with schizophrenia was 9.5% (95% CI = 7.0-12.8, n = 145,718) and 10.75% (95% CI 7.44-14.5%, n = 2698) in studies capturing T2DM according to recognized criteria. The pooled RR across all studies was 1.82 (95% CI = 1.56-2.13; = 4,489,125). Subgroup analyses found a RR of 2.53 (95% CI = 1.68-3.799, n = 17,727) in studies ascertaining T2DM according to recognized criteria and RR 1.65 (95% CI = 1.34-2.03, n = 4,243,389) in studies relying on T2DM determined through medical records.

Conclusion: People with schizophrenia are at least double the risk of developing T2DM according to recognized T2DM criteria. Proactive lifestyle and screening programmes should be given clinical priority.

Keywords: T2DM mellitus; diabetes; glucose abnormality; metabolic syndrome; psychosis; schizophrenia.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Control Groups
  • Diabetes Mellitus / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Schizophrenia / metabolism*