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Review
, 4 (2), e984547
eCollection

The Correlations Between IL-17 vs. Th17 Cells and Cancer Patient Survival: A Systematic Review

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Review

The Correlations Between IL-17 vs. Th17 Cells and Cancer Patient Survival: A Systematic Review

Simone Punt et al. Oncoimmunology.

Abstract

Both IL-17 and Th17 cells have been ascribed tumor promoting as well as tumor suppressing functions. We reviewed the literature on correlations between IL-17 versus Th17 cells and survival in human cancer, following the PRISMA guidelines. Serum, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and peripheral blood samples were most frequently studied. High IL-17 quantities were correlated with poor prognosis, whereas high Th17 cell frequencies were correlated with improved prognosis. Since Th17 cells are a subpopulation of IL-17+ cells and had a different correlation with prognosis than total IL-17, we substantiate that a distinction should be made between Th17 and other IL-17+ cells.

Keywords: FFPE, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded; IL-17; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; RORγ, receptor-related orphan receptor gamma; TNM, tumor node metastasis stage; Th17; cancer; survival; tumor microenvironment.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
PRISMA Flow diagram. Database searching identified 2642 publications on IL-17 or Th17 and cancer. One publication on this topic of our group published in this issue of OncoImmunology was added manually. Using the search term “tumor” caused studies on tumor necrosis factor to be selected regardless of whether the study was on cancer. Although tumor necrosis factor was excluded as a major topic, many publications that were not on cancer had to be excluded manually. All inclusion criteria were met by 56 articles. Five studies were excluded from analysis for using different sample types or methods than all other articles. Another 32 studies were excluded from meta-analysis because not enough studies were available on sample types other than tissue analyzed for IL-17 expression or insufficient data were provided. Figure adapted from Moher et al.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Forest plots for IL-17+ cells in tissue. Schematic quantitative analyses of the studies on the number of IL-17+ cells in FFPE tissue are shown by forest plots. Cox regression hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the correlation between a high number of IL-17+ cells and overall survival (A) and disease-free survival (B) were obtained from the articles or via personal communication with the authors. An asterisk (*) indicates that a multivariate Cox regression analysis was used because a univariate analysis was not provided. A dagger (†) indicates that part of the data were obtained via e-mail. The cut-off value used to divide the IL-17+ cell frequency in a high and low group is indicated for comparison. The center of the random effects model represents the pooled hazard ratio, while the 95% confidence interval is represented by the diamond horizontal borders.

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