Histopathology of renal asphyxia in newborn piglets: Individual susceptibility to tubular changes

World J Nephrol. 2015 May 6;4(2):313-8. doi: 10.5527/wjn.v4.i2.313.


Aim: To analyze the effects on the kidney of hypoxia-reoxygenation in an experimental model of normocapnic asphyxia.

Methods: To this end, 40 newborn Landrace/Large-White piglets aged 1-4 d were studied in this work. Hypoxia was induced by decreasing the inspired fiO2 to 0.06-0.08. Animals were resuscitated with different fiO2 and subdivided into 4 groups: group 1, 2, 3 and 4 received 18%, 21%, 40% and 100% O2 respectively. Macroscopic examination was carried out to evidence possible pathological features. Tissue sample were obtained from both kidneys. Four or five micron paraffin sections were stained with H-E and PAS stain and examined under an optical microscope.

Results: Pathological changes, mainly affecting tubular cells, were observed in the vast majority of kidneys of asphyxiated piglets. The most frequent tubular changes were: tubular casts (95%), tubular dilatation (87.5%), tubular vacuolization (70%), tubular eosinophilia (52.5%), sloughing (50%), fragmentation of the brush border (50%), oedema (32.5%), apoptosis (15%) and glomerular changes (meningeal cell proliferation, capsular adhesion between the flocculus and Bowman's capsule, glomerulosclerosis and fibrous or cellular crescents associated with collapse of the glomerular tuft). Statistical analysis was carried out on changes observed when the animals were allocated in the 4 groups (χ(2)-test 0.05). The statistical analysis showed no evidence of differences regarding kidney lesions among the animals groups.

Conclusion: Our data show that renal pathology in newborn piglets is characterized by interindividual variability to hypoxia and is not associated with oxygen concentration.

Keywords: Apoptosis; Asphyxia; Brush border fragmentation; Kidney; Sloughing; Tubular dilatation; Tubular eosinophilia; Vacuolization.