Oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease

Iran J Kidney Dis. 2015 May;9(3):165-79.


Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and malignancy. Several factors contribute to these conditions. Structural characteristics in CKD, loss of renal energy, and uremia result in an imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defenses. Also, CKD patients usually have multiple cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. These conditions are associated with oxidative stress, which can trigger the inflammatory process and accelerate renal injury progression. There are some clinical biomarkers to detect oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CKD patients. Antioxidant therapies may be beneficial in reducing oxidative stress, lowering uremic cardiovascular toxicity, and improving survival. Therefore, their roles in CKD patients have been evaluated in several studies as a new target for therapeutic intervention. This review provides an overview of oxidative stress mechanisms, clinical squeals, biomarkers, and possible antioxidant therapies in CKD patients.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / metabolism*
  • Oxidation-Reduction / drug effects*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Risk Factors
  • Uremia / blood
  • Uremia / complications
  • Uremia / immunology


  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers