Compound RYR1 heterozygosity resulting in a complex phenotype of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility and a core myopathy

Neuromuscul Disord. 2015 Jul;25(7):567-76. doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2015.04.007. Epub 2015 Apr 27.


Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a potentially fatal pharmacogenetic myopathy triggered by exposure to volatile anesthetics and/or depolarizing muscle relaxants. Susceptibility to MH is primarily associated with dominant mutations in the ryanodine receptor type 1 gene (RYR1). Recent genetic studies have shown that RYR1 variants are the most common cause of dominant and recessive congenital myopathies - central core and multi-minicore disease, congenital fiber type disproportion, and centronuclear myopathy. However, the MH status of many patients, especially with recessive RYR1-related myopathies, remains uncertain. We report the occurrence of a triplet of RYR1 variants, c.4711A>G (p.Ile1571Val), c.10097G>A (p.Arg3366His), c.11798A>G (p.Tyr3933Cys), found in cis in four unrelated families, one from Belgium, one from The Netherlands and two from Canada. Phenotype-genotype correlation analysis indicates that the presence of the triplet allele alone confers susceptibility to MH, and that the presence of this allele in a compound heterozygous state with the MH-associated RYR1 variant c.14545G>A (p.Val4849Ile) results in the MH susceptibility phenotype and a congenital myopathy with cores and rods. Our study underlines the notion that assigning pathogenicity to individual RYR1 variants or combination of variants, and counseling in RYR1-related myopathies may require integration of clinical, histopathological, in vitro contracture testing, MRI and genetic findings.

Keywords: Compound RYR1 heterozygosity; Core myopathies; Malignant hyperthermia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / genetics
  • Family
  • Female
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Genetic Variation
  • Heterozygote*
  • Humans
  • Leg / pathology
  • Male
  • Malignant Hyperthermia / genetics*
  • Malignant Hyperthermia / metabolism
  • Malignant Hyperthermia / pathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / pathology
  • Myopathy, Central Core / genetics*
  • Myopathy, Central Core / metabolism
  • Myopathy, Central Core / pathology
  • Phenotype*
  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel / genetics*
  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel / metabolism


  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel