SWOG S0809: A Phase II Intergroup Trial of Adjuvant Capecitabine and Gemcitabine Followed by Radiotherapy and Concurrent Capecitabine in Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma and Gallbladder Carcinoma

J Clin Oncol. 2015 Aug 20;33(24):2617-22. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.60.2219. Epub 2015 May 11.

Abstract

Purpose: The role of postoperative therapy in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC) or gallbladder carcinoma (GBCA) is unknown. S0809 was designed to estimate 2-year survival (overall and after R0 or R1 resection), pattern of relapse, and toxicity in patients treated with this adjuvant regimen.

Patients and methods: Eligibility criteria included diagnosis of EHCC or GBCA after radical resection, stage pT2-4 or N+ or positive resection margins, M0, and performance status 0 to 1. Patients received four cycles of gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1 and 8) and capecitabine (1,500 mg/m(2) per day on days 1 to 14) every 21 days followed by concurrent capecitabine (1,330 mg/m(2) per day) and radiotherapy (45 Gy to regional lymphatics; 54 to 59.4 Gy to tumor bed). With 80 evaluable patients, results would be promising if 2-year survival 95% CI were > 45% and R0 and R1 survival estimates were ≥ 65% and 45%, respectively.

Results: A total of 79 eligible patients (R0, n = 54; R1, n = 25; EHCC, 68%; GBCA, 32%) were treated (86% completed). For all patients, 2-year survival was 65% (95% CI, 53% to 74%); it was 67% and 60% in R0 and R1 patients, respectively. Median overall survival was 35 months (R0, 34 months; R1, 35 months). Local, distant, and combined relapse occurred in 14, 24, and nine patients. Grade 3 and 4 adverse effects were observed in 52% and 11% of patients, respectively. The most common grade 3 to 4 adverse effects were neutropenia (44%), hand-foot syndrome (11%), diarrhea (8%), lymphopenia (8%), and leukopenia (6%). There was one death resulting from GI hemorrhage.

Conclusion: This combination was well tolerated, has promising efficacy, and provides clinicians with a well-supported regimen. Our trial establishes the feasibility of conducting national adjuvant trials in EHCC and GBCA and provides baseline data for planning future phase III trials.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00789958.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy*
  • Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology
  • Capecitabine
  • Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy*
  • Cholangiocarcinoma / radiotherapy*
  • Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage
  • Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives
  • Female
  • Fluorouracil / administration & dosage
  • Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Survival Rate

Substances

  • Deoxycytidine
  • Capecitabine
  • gemcitabine
  • Fluorouracil

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00789958