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Review
, 88 (Pt B), 189-198

Close Teamwork Between Nrf2 and Peroxiredoxins 1 and 6 for the Regulation of Prostaglandin D2 and E2 Production in Macrophages in Acute Inflammation

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Review

Close Teamwork Between Nrf2 and Peroxiredoxins 1 and 6 for the Regulation of Prostaglandin D2 and E2 Production in Macrophages in Acute Inflammation

Tetsuro Ishii. Free Radic Biol Med.

Abstract

Inflammation is a complex biological self-defense reaction triggered by tissue damage or infection by pathogens. Acute inflammation is regulated by the time- and cell type-dependent production of cytokines and small signaling molecules including reactive oxygen species and prostaglandins. Recent studies have unveiled the important role of the transcription factor Nrf2 in the regulation of prostaglandin production through transcriptional regulation of peroxiredoxins 1 and 6 (Prx1 and Prx6) and lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS). Prx1 and Prx6 are multifunctional proteins important for cell protection against oxidative stress, but also work together to facilitate production of prostaglandins E2 and D2 (PGE2 and PGD2). Prx1 secreted from cells under mild oxidative stress binds Toll-like receptor 4 and induces NF-κB activation, important for the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression. The activated MAPKs p38 and ERK phosphorylate Prx6, leading to NADPH oxidase-2 activation, which contributes to production of PGD2 by hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS). PGD2 and its end product 15-deoxy-∆(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) activate Nrf2 thereby forming a positive feedback loop for further production of PGD2 by L-PGDS. Maintenance of cellular glutathione levels is an important role of Nrf2 not only for cell protection but also for the synthesis of prostaglandins, as mPGES-1 and H-PGDS require glutathione for their activities. This review is aimed at describing the functions of Prx1 and Prx6 in the regulation of PGD2 and PGE2 production in acute inflammation in macrophages and the importance of 15d-PGJ2 as an intrinsic Nrf2 activator.

Keywords: 15d-PGJ(2); Free radicals; Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase; Lipopolysaccharide; NADPH oxidase 2; NF-κB; Nrf2; Peroxiredoxin; Polyphenols; Prostaglandin; S-glutathionylation; Toll-like receptor 4.

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