Electrochemical Imaging of Dopamine Release from Three-Dimensional-Cultured PC12 Cells Using Large-Scale Integration-Based Amperometric Sensors

Anal Chem. 2015 Jun 16;87(12):6364-70. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b01307. Epub 2015 May 27.


In the present study, we used a large-scale integration (LSI)-based amperometric sensor array system, designated Bio-LSI, to image dopamine release from three-dimensional (3D)-cultured PC12 cells (PC12 spheroids). The Bio-LSI device consists of 400 sensor electrodes with a pitch of 250 μm for rapid electrochemical imaging of large areas. PC12 spheroids were stimulated with K(+) to release dopamine. Poststimulation dopamine release from the PC12 spheroids was electrochemically imaged using the Bio-LSI device. Bio-LSI clearly showed the effects of the dopaminergic drugs l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and reserpine on K(+)-stimulated dopamine release from PC12 spheroids. Our results demonstrate that dopamine release from PC12 spheroids can be monitored using the device, suggesting that the Bio-LSI is a promising tool for use in evaluating 3D-cultured dopaminergic cells and the effects of dopaminergic drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe electrochemical imaging of dopamine release by PC12 spheroids using LSI-based amperometric sensors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Culture Techniques / methods*
  • Dopamine / analysis*
  • Dopamine / metabolism*
  • Electrochemical Techniques / instrumentation
  • Electrochemical Techniques / methods*
  • Electrodes
  • PC12 Cells
  • Rats
  • Spheroids, Cellular / cytology
  • Spheroids, Cellular / metabolism


  • Dopamine