Cancer immunotherapy may become a major treatment backbone in many cancers over the next decade. There are numerous immune cell types found in cancers and many components of an immune reaction to cancer. Thus, the tumor has many strategies to evade an immune response. It has been proposed that four different types of tumor microenvironment exist based on the presence or absence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. We review this stratification and the latest in a series of results that shed light on new approaches for rationally designing ideal combination cancer therapies based on tumor immunology.
©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.