A case of tuberculous endophthalmitis successfully treated with vitrectomy followed by antituberculous agents

J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. 2015 May 8;5:14. doi: 10.1186/s12348-015-0046-z. eCollection 2015.

Abstract

Background: Tuberculous endophthalmitis is very rare with only 18 reports published worldwide and only a few cases in Japan. We report a case of tuberculous endophthalmitis successfully treated with vitrectomy followed by antituberculous agents.

Findings: An 81-year-old man was referred to us due to the exacerbation of vitreous opacity on his left eye(OS) after he had received the corticosteroid therapy. His best corrected visual acuity was light perception OS, and he had severe intraocular inflammation with fibrin formation in the anterior chamber and dense vitreous opacity. A chest CT showed miliary nodules indicating miliary tuberculosis, and pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Intraoperative observation showed that the vitreous cavity was filled by fibrin, and large elevated subretinal yellow-white lesions were present at the mid-periphery. The patient immediately received triple antituberculous agents orally, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected in vitreous fluids. The intraocular inflammation gradually decreased, and the subretinal mass regressed within 2 weeks.

Conclusions: We encountered a case of tuberculous endophthalmitis successfully treated with vitrectomy followed by antituberculous agents. If endophthalmitis is suspected in a patient with systemic tuberculosis infection, prompt vitrectomy along with the administration of antituberculous agents may be necessary.

Keywords: Antituberculous agents; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Pars plana vitrectomy; Prednisolone; Tuberculosis; Tuberculous endophthalmitis; Uveitis.