Objective: To investigate whether an infancy-onset, low saturated fat-oriented dietary intervention influences serum adiponectin concentration in adolescents, and to study the association of adiponectin with subclinical markers of vascular health, and cardio-metabolic risk factors.
Study design: The longitudinal, randomized Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project aimed to modify child's dietary fat quality replacing saturated fat with unsaturated fat. Serum adiponectin (n = 521) along with weight, height, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), triglycerides, and insulin were measured at age 15 years. Adiposity was assessed using body mass index, waist circumference, and abdominal fat thickness measured with ultrasound. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Foundation criteria. Vascular ultrasound measures including carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were assessed.
Results: Adiponectin concentrations were similar in the intervention and control groups (P = .16). Adiponectin associated with carotid IMT (r = -0.13, P = .005), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.18, P < .0001), triglycerides (r = -0.16, P = .0004), CRP (r = -0.10, P = .02), insulin (r = -0.14, P = .002), and adiposity (r = -0.18-0.24, P ≤ .0001). When adjusted for adiposity indices, the association with carotid IMT was only marginally diluted (P = .03-.06), but the associations with insulin and CRP became nonsignificant. Adolescents with adiponectin ≤median had 4-fold risk of metabolic syndrome than peers with adiponectin >median (CI 1.8-10.2, P = .0001).
Conclusions: In healthy adolescents, low serum adiponectin is related with carotid IMT and metabolic syndrome. We found no evidence that repeated low saturated fat-oriented dietary counseling would influence serum adiponectin in adolescence.
Trial registration: Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00223600.
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