Background: Previous reports have demonstrated a higher prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but similar data in children and adolescents do not exist. The aim of the study was to evaluate the status of dental caries, oral hygiene, gingival status and periodontal treatment needs of children with IBD.
Methods: In this case-control study, 55 children on remission from a single outpatient IBD clinic, aged 4 to 18 years (12.27 ± 3.67 yr) and 55 matched systemically healthy controls of a dental practice were assessed prospectively. The evaluation included medical history, dental questionnaire in both groups, and previous and current medical therapy of children with IBD. Additionally, the decayed, missing, and filled tooth (dmf-t or DMF-T), simplified gingival, plaque control record and community periodontal treatment needs indices were evaluated.
Results: Children with IBD compared with controls had a statistically significant (P < 0.001) higher dmf-t (2.95 versus 0.91) or DMF-T (5.81 versus 2.04) index and a higher gingival inflammation (simplified gingival, 40% versus 24%) although the respectively dental plaque index showed no significant difference (plaque control record, 42% versus 41%). Also, the community periodontal treatment needs was significantly higher compared with controls (P < 0.001); most of the patients with IBD needed treatment of gingivitis (47% versus 4%), and none of them had healthy periodontium (0% versus 69%).
Conclusions: The results of this case-control study demonstrate a higher frequency of dental caries, more clinical signs of gingival inflammation, and increased periodontal treatment needs in children and adolescents with IBD despite similar oral hygiene status.