High Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-11 indicates Poor Prognosis in Human Cholangiocarcinoma

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(9):3697-701. doi: 10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.9.3697.


Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CHCA) is serious public health problem in Thailand, especially in the northeastern and northern regions. CHCA is known as one of the most aggressive malignant tumors associated with local invasion and a high rate of metastasis. A crucial step in the invasion process is the proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and basal membranes, for which several studies have shown a critical role played by matrix metalloproteinase-11 (MMP-11).

Objective: This study aim to detect MMP-11 expression in CHCA specimens and any correlation with survival time.

Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 30 patients with CHCA in Rajvithi hospital, who had undergone immunohistochemical staining of MMP-11. Relationships between clinicopathological data and MMP-11 expression in CHCA specimens were analyzed by the χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. The estimated survival and the survival differences were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test, respectively.

Results: MMP-11 expression was found in 15 specimens (50%). The overall mean survival time is 237.0 days (95% CI 135.4-338.5, SD 271.9). Specimens with a positive MMP-11 had an average survival time of 136.7 days (95%CI 50.3-223.1, SD 156.0). Survival differences was signficant for the positive and negative MMP-11(p=0.022), but not well differentiated tumor and moderate to poor differentiated tumor (p=0.755), CA19-9 level of >1,000 and <1,000 (p=0.488), and between advanced and non-advanced staging (p=0.388).

Conclusions: The positive MMP-11 expression indicates poor prognosis in CHCA specimens.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms / enzymology*
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms / mortality
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology
  • Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / enzymology*
  • Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Cholangiocarcinoma / enzymology*
  • Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality
  • Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 11 / metabolism*
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Rate


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • MMP11 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 11