Innate immunity against HIV-1 infection

Nat Immunol. 2015 Jun;16(6):554-62. doi: 10.1038/ni.3157.


During acute HIV-1 infection, viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns are recognized by pathogen-recognition receptors (PRRs) of infected cells, which triggers a signaling cascade that initiates innate intracellular antiviral defenses aimed at restricting the replication and spread of the virus. This cell-intrinsic response propagates outward via the action of secreted factors such as cytokines and chemokines that activate innate immune cells and attract them to the site of infection and to local lymphatic tissue. Antiviral innate effector cells can subsequently contribute to the control of viremia and modulate the quality of the adaptive immune response to HIV-1. The concerted actions of PRR signaling, specific viral-restriction factors, innate immune cells, innate-adaptive immune crosstalk and viral evasion strategies determine the outcome of HIV-1 infection and immune responses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Animals
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HIV-1 / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Immune Evasion
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / immunology*
  • Virus Replication


  • Cytokines
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition