Importance: The type I interferonopathies comprise a recently recognized group of mendelian diseases characterized by an upregulation of type I interferon signaling. These monogenic phenotypes include classic Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and syndromic forms of systemic lupus erythematosus, including familial chilblain lupus and spondyloenchondrodysplasia. Dermatologic features provide a major diagnostic clue to this disease grouping, as exemplified by the recently described stimulator of interferon genes-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) caused by gain-of-function mutations in TMEM173.
Observations: We describe a male child who, from the age of 2 months, had significant cutaneous disease that manifested as red violaceous plaques of the cheeks, nose, ears, fingers, and toes that progressed to gangrenous necrosis. In addition to his severe cutaneous vasculopathy, he experienced recurrent fevers, interstitial lung disease, and failure to thrive. His clinical syndrome was refractory to multiple immunosuppressive therapies. Evidence of marked upregulation of type I interferon signaling was observed in peripheral blood, and genetic testing identified a de novo germline mutation in TMEM173, confirming a diagnosis of SAVI 7 years after the onset of his disease.
Conclusions and relevance: This observational report describes a new case of SAVI, a recently defined monogenic inflammatory phenotype, that exemplifies an emerging group of disorders related to primary upregulation of type I interferon signaling.