Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem

PLoS One. 2015 May 18;10(5):e0127381. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127381. eCollection 2015.


Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Breeding
  • Dog Diseases / diagnosis
  • Dog Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Dog Diseases / pathology
  • Dogs / classification
  • Female
  • Incidence
  • Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology*
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / diagnosis
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / epidemiology*
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology
  • Mexico / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies

Grant support

The authors have no support or funding to report.