In the present study, we investigated the association between Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and the UPPS-P impulsivity facets in eating disorder patients and healthy controls. The prevalence of NSSI in eating disorder (ED) patients ranged from 17% in restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN-R) patients to 43% in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). In healthy controls (HC), the prevalence of NSSI was 19%. Eating disorder patients from the binge eating/purging type showed significantly more NSSI compared to restrictive ED and HC participants. Binge-eating/purging ED patients also scored significantly higher on Negative/Positive Urgency, Lack of Premeditation and Lack of Perseverance compared to HC and restrictive ED patients. Comparable findings were found between ED patients and HC with and without NSSI; ED patients and HC with NSSI scored significantly higher in four of the five UPPS-P dimensions compared to participants without NSSI; Sensation Seeking was the exception. Finally, the presence of NSSI in HC/ED patients was particularly predicted by low levels of Perseverance. Therefore, the treatment of ED patients with NSSI certainly needs to focus on the training of effortful control.