Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 521 (7552), 310-5

3.3-million-year-old Stone Tools From Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya


3.3-million-year-old Stone Tools From Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya

Sonia Harmand et al. Nature.


Human evolutionary scholars have long supposed that the earliest stone tools were made by the genus Homo and that this technological development was directly linked to climate change and the spread of savannah grasslands. New fieldwork in West Turkana, Kenya, has identified evidence of much earlier hominin technological behaviour. We report the discovery of Lomekwi 3, a 3.3-million-year-old archaeological site where in situ stone artefacts occur in spatiotemporal association with Pliocene hominin fossils in a wooded palaeoenvironment. The Lomekwi 3 knappers, with a developing understanding of stone's fracture properties, combined core reduction with battering activities. Given the implications of the Lomekwi 3 assemblage for models aiming to converge environmental change, hominin evolution and technological origins, we propose for it the name 'Lomekwian', which predates the Oldowan by 700,000 years and marks a new beginning to the known archaeological record.

Comment in

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 62 articles

See all "Cited by" articles


    1. Science. 2014 Jul 4;345(6192):1236828 - PubMed
    1. Nature. 1964 Apr 4;202:7-9 - PubMed
    1. Evol Anthropol. 2011 Nov-Dec;20(6):264-92 - PubMed
    1. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2004 Feb;123(2):106-18 - PubMed
    1. J Hum Evol. 2008 Jul;55(1):148-63 - PubMed

Publication types

LinkOut - more resources